electronics

Global Emerging Battery Technologies Market Research Report 2018


Published On : Jul 2018

Category : Semiconductors

No. of Pages : 95 pages

  • $2900
  • $5800

SPECIFY YOUR RESEARCH NEED

  • Query Type :
  •  
This report studies the global Emerging Battery Technologies market status and forecast, categorizes the global Emerging Battery Technologies market size (value & volume) by manufacturers, type, application, and region. This report focuses on the top manufacturers in United States, Europe, China, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan and other regions.

Electrostatic precipitators are industrial emission control units designed for particulate and acid mist removal from industrial exhaust gas streams.
Tte mainly drive of the market is increase in the demand for consumer electronics and portable Devices.
The global Emerging Battery Technologies market is valued at xx million US$ in 2017 and will reach xx million US$ by the end of 2025, growing at a CAGR of xx% during 2018-2025.

The major manufacturers covered in this report
Wanxiang America
Ac Delco
Advanced Battery Concepts
Advanced Battery Technologies
Abat
All Power Battery
Ambri
Amprius
Anzode
Apollo Energy Systems
Arotech
Atlantic Battery
Axion Power International
Basf Battery Materials

Geographically, this report studies the top producers and consumers, focuses on product capacity, production, value, consumption, market share and growth opportunity in these key regions, covering
United States
EU
China
Japan
South Korea
Taiwan

We can also provide the customized separate regional or country-level reports, for the following regions:
North America
United States
Canada
Mexico
Asia-Pacific
China
India
Japan
South Korea
Australia
Indonesia
Singapore
Rest of Asia-Pacific
Europe
Germany
France
UK
Italy
Spain
Russia
Rest of Europe
Central & South America
Brazil
Argentina
Rest of South America
Middle East & Africa
Saudi Arabia
Turkey
Rest of Middle East & Africa

On the basis of product, this report displays the production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into
Lead-Acid Batteries
Nickel-Cadmium Batteries
Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries
Lithium-Ion And Lithium-Polymer Batteries
Silver-Based Batteries
Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries
Nickel-Zinc Batteries
Sodium-Sulfur Batteries
High-Temperature Lithium Batteries
Redox And Flow Batteries
On the basis of the end users/applications, this report focuses on the status and outlook for major applications/end users, consumption (sales), market share and growth rate for each application, including
MobileEquipment
Aerospace
New Energy Battery

The study objectives of this report are:
To analyze and study the global Emerging Battery Technologies capacity, production, value, consumption, status (2013-2017) and forecast (2018-2025);
Focuses on the key Emerging Battery Technologies manufacturers, to study the capacity, production, value, market share and development plans in future.
Focuses on the global key manufacturers, to define, describe and analyze the market competition landscape, SWOT analysis.
To define, describe and forecast the market by type, application and region.
To analyze the global and key regions market potential and advantage, opportunity and challenge, restraints and risks.
To identify significant trends and factors driving or inhibiting the market growth.
To analyze the opportunities in the market for stakeholders by identifying the high growth segments.
To strategically analyze each submarket with respect to individual growth trend and their contribution to the market
To analyze competitive developments such as expansions, agreements, new product launches, and acquisitions in the market
To strategically profile the key players and comprehensively analyze their growth strategies.

In this study, the years considered to estimate the market size of Emerging Battery Technologies are as follows:
History Year: 2013-2017
Base Year: 2017
Estimated Year: 2018
Forecast Year 2018 to 2025

For the data information by region, company, type and application, 2017 is considered as the base year. Whenever data information was unavailable for the base year, the prior year has been considered.

Key Stakeholders
Emerging Battery Technologies Manufacturers
Emerging Battery Technologies Distributors/Traders/Wholesalers
Emerging Battery Technologies Subcomponent Manufacturers
Industry Association
Downstream Vendors

Available Customizations
With the given market data, QYResearch offers customizations according to the company's specific needs. The following customization options are available for the report:
Regional and country-level analysis of the Emerging Battery Technologies market, by end-use.
Detailed analysis and profiles of additional market players.

Considering the fragile condition of the global economy, the Global emerging battery technologies market research report 2018 is expected to exhibit a mixed performance over the coming years. On one hand, the expansion in the industrial and automotive sectors are offering lucrative growth opportunities for this market while on the other, the need for high initial investments and the volatile market dynamics are anticipated to create obstructions in the otherwise steady growth trajectory.

The market, however, will show a positive movement, although growing moderately in the years to come. The increasing demand for mobility and connectivity in consumer electronics and testing services will act as the key driving force behind the escalated demand for Global emerging battery technologies market research report 2018. Along with this, the rising deployment of safety systems in automobiles will also influence their uptake over the next few years.

This report on the Global emerging battery technologies market research report 2018 offers a detailed overview of this market and discusses the predominant factors affecting the market’s growth. The impact of Porter’s five forces on the market over the next few years has also been discussed at length in this study. It further forecasts the size and valuation of the Global emerging battery technologies market research report 2018 for the forthcoming years.

The type of the product, application, and the geographical reach of the Global emerging battery technologies market research report 2018 have been taken as the main parameters for the market’s analysis in this research report, which further performs an evaluation of the industry chain that is supporting this market. It also offers accurate information regarding various aspects of this market, such as the manufacturing capacity, efficacy in the utilization of the available production capacity, manufacturing chain, and the industry policies influencing the market’s growth.

In this research study, the prime factors that are impelling the growth of the Global emerging battery technologies market research report 2018 have been studied thoroughly in a bid to estimate the overall value and the size of this market by the end of the forecast period. The impact of the driving forces, limitations, challenges, and opportunities has been examined extensively. The key trends that manage the interest of the customers have also been interpreted accurately for the benefit of the readers.

Furthermore, the report analyzes the regulatory framework of the Global emerging battery technologies market research report 2018 , providing the stakeholders with a better understanding of the various norms, regulations, policies, and future projects, which are likely to influence a number of events in this market.  It also compiles in-depth information achieved through detailed primary and secondary research techniques, which has been analyzed using the most efficient analytical tools. Based on the statistics gained from such systematic research, the market study offers refined estimates for the market participants as well as the readers.

The report concludes with in-depth information on the business operations and financial structures of the leading vendors in the Global emerging battery technologies market research report 2018 and presents an overview of the competitive landscape. The key trends of the past and the current times among the players have also been given in the report, which will prove to be favorable for companies looking to venture in this market. Information on the various marketing channels and the prominent distributors that exist in this market have also been provided here. The study serves as a resourceful guide for the established as well as new players in this market.

List of Tables and Figures

Figure Picture of Emerging Battery Technologies
Figure Global Emerging Battery Technologies Production () and CAGR (%) Comparison by Types (Product Category) (2013-2025)
Figure Global Emerging Battery Technologies Production Market Share by Types (Product Category) in 2017
Figure Product Picture of Lead-Acid Batteries
Table Major Manufacturers of Lead-Acid Batteries
Figure Product Picture of Nickel-Cadmium Batteries
Table Major Manufacturers of Nickel-Cadmium Batteries
Figure Product Picture of Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries
Table Major Manufacturers of Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries
Figure Product Picture of Lithium-Ion And Lithium-Polymer Batteries
Table Major Manufacturers of Lithium-Ion And Lithium-Polymer Batteries
Figure Product Picture of Silver-Based Batteries
Table Major Manufacturers of Silver-Based Batteries
Figure Product Picture of Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries
Table Major Manufacturers of Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries
Figure Product Picture of Nickel-Zinc Batteries
Table Major Manufacturers of Nickel-Zinc Batteries
Figure Product Picture of Sodium-Sulfur Batteries
Table Major Manufacturers of Sodium-Sulfur Batteries
Figure Product Picture of High-Temperature Lithium Batteries
Table Major Manufacturers of High-Temperature Lithium Batteries
Figure Product Picture of Redox And Flow Batteries
Table Major Manufacturers of Redox And Flow Batteries
Figure Global Emerging Battery Technologies Consumption (Units) by Applications (2013-2025)
Figure Global Emerging Battery Technologies Consumption Market Share by Applications in 2017
Figure MobileEquipment Examples
Table Key Downstream Customer in MobileEquipment
Figure Aerospace Examples
Table Key Downstream Customer in Aerospace
Figure New Energy Battery Examples
Table Key Downstream Customer in New Energy Battery
Figure Global Emerging Battery Technologies Market Size (Million USD), Comparison (Units) and CAGR (%) by Regions (2013-2025)
Figure United States Emerging Battery Technologies Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate (2013-2025)
Figure EU Emerging Battery Technologies Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate (2013-2025)
Figure China Emerging Battery Technologies Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate (2013-2025)
Figure Japan Emerging Battery Technologies Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate (2013-2025)
Figure South Korea Emerging Battery Technologies Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate (2013-2025)
Figure Taiwan Emerging Battery Technologies Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate (2013-2025)
Figure Global Emerging Battery Technologies Revenue (Million USD) Status and Outlook (2013-2025)
Figure Global Emerging Battery Technologies Capacity, Production (Units) Status and Outlook (2013-2025)
Figure Global Emerging Battery Technologies Major Players Product Capacity (Units) (2013-2018)
Table Global Emerging Battery Technologies Capacity (Units) of Key Manufacturers (2013-2018)
Table Global Emerging Battery Technologies Capacity Market Share of Key Manufacturers (2013-2018)
Figure Global Emerging Battery Technologies Capacity (Units) of Key Manufacturers in 2017
Figure Global Emerging Battery Technologies Capacity (Units) of Key Manufacturers in 2018
Figure Global Emerging Battery Technologies Major Players Product Production (Units) (2013-2018)
Table Global Emerging Battery Technologies Production (Units) of Key Manufacturers (2013-2018)
Table Global Emerging Battery Technologies Production Share by Manufacturers (2013-2018)
Figure 2017 Emerging Battery Technologies Production Share by Manufacturers
Figure 2017 Emerging Battery Technologies Production Share by Manufacturers
Figure Global Emerging Battery Technologies Major Players Product Revenue (Million USD) (2013-2018)
Table Global Emerging Battery Technologies Revenue (Million USD) by Manufacturers (2013-2018)
Table Global Emerging Battery Technologies Revenue Share by Manufacturers (2013-2018)
Table 2017 Global Emerging Battery Technologies Revenue Share by Manufacturers
Table 2018 Global Emerging Battery Technologies Revenue Share by Manufacturers
Table Global Market Emerging Battery Technologies Average Price (K USD/Unit) of Key Manufacturers (2013-2018)
Figure Global Market Emerging Battery Technologies Average Price (K USD/Unit) of Key Manufacturers in 2017
Table Manufacturers Emerging Battery Technologies Manufacturing Base Distribution and Sales Area
Table Manufacturers Emerging Battery Technologies Product Category
Figure Emerging Battery Technologies Market Share of Top 3 Manufacturers
Figure Emerging Battery Technologies Market Share of Top 5 Manufacturers
Table Global Emerging Battery Technologies Capacity (Units) by Region (2013-2018)
Figure Global Emerging Battery Technologies Capacity Market Share by Region (2013-2018)
Figure Global Emerging Battery Technologies Capacity Market Share by Region (2013-2018)
Figure 2017 Global Emerging Battery Technologies Capacity Market Share by Region
Table Global Emerging Battery Technologies Production by Region (2013-2018)
Figure Global Emerging Battery Technologies Production (Units) by Region (2013-2018)
Figure Global Emerging Battery Technologies Production Market Share by Region (2013-2018)
Figure 2017 Global Emerging Battery Technologies Production Market Share by Region
Table Global Emerging Battery Technologies Revenue (Million USD) by Region (2013-2018)
Table Global Emerging Battery Technologies Revenue Market Share by Region (2013-2018)
Figure Global Emerging Battery Technologies Revenue Market Share by Region (2013-2018)
Table 2017 Global Emerging Battery Technologies Revenue Market Share by Region
Figure Global Emerging Battery Technologies Capacity, Production (Units) and Growth Rate (2013-2018)
Table Global Emerging Battery Technologies Capacity, Production (Units), Revenue (Million USD), Price (K USD/Unit) and Gross Margin (2013-2018)
Table United States Emerging Battery Technologies Capacity, Production (Units), Revenue (Million USD), Price (K USD/Unit) and Gross Margin (2013-2018)
Table EU Emerging Battery Technologies Capacity, Production (Units), Revenue (Million USD), Price (K USD/Unit) and Gross Margin (2013-2018)
Table China Emerging Battery Technologies Capacity, Production (Units), Revenue (Million USD), Price (K USD/Unit) and Gross Margin (2013-2018)
Table Japan Emerging Battery Technologies Capacity, Production (Units), Revenue (Million USD), Price (K USD/Unit) and Gross Margin (2013-2018)
Table South Korea Emerging Battery Technologies Capacity, Production (Units), Revenue (Million USD), Price (K USD/Unit) and Gross Margin (2013-2018)
Table Taiwan Emerging Battery Technologies Capacity, Production (Units), Revenue (Million USD), Price (K USD/Unit) and Gross Margin (2013-2018)
Table Global Emerging Battery Technologies Consumption (Units) Market by Region (2013-2018)
Table Global Emerging Battery Technologies Consumption Market Share by Region (2013-2018)
Figure Global Emerging Battery Technologies Consumption Market Share by Region (2013-2018)
Figure 2017 Global Emerging Battery Technologies Consumption (Units) Market Share by Region
Table United States Emerging Battery Technologies Production, Consumption, Import & Export (Units) (2013-2018)
Table EU Emerging Battery Technologies Production, Consumption, Import & Export (Units) (2013-2018)
Table China Emerging Battery Technologies Production, Consumption, Import & Export (Units) (2013-2018)
Table Japan Emerging Battery Technologies Production, Consumption, Import & Export (Units) (2013-2018)
Table South Korea Emerging Battery Technologies Production, Consumption, Import & Export (Units) (2013-2018)
Table Taiwan Emerging Battery Technologies Production, Consumption, Import & Export (Units) (2013-2018)
Table Global Emerging Battery Technologies Production (Units) by Type (2013-2018)
Table Global Emerging Battery Technologies Production Share by Type (2013-2018)
Figure Production Market Share of Emerging Battery Technologies by Type (2013-2018)
Figure 2017 Production Market Share of Emerging Battery Technologies by Type
Table Global Emerging Battery Technologies Revenue (Million USD) by Type (2013-2018)
Table Global Emerging Battery Technologies Revenue Share by Type (2013-2018)
Figure Production Revenue Share of Emerging Battery Technologies by Type (2013-2018)
Figure 2017 Revenue Market Share of Emerging Battery Technologies by Type
Table Global Emerging Battery Technologies Price (K USD/Unit) by Type (2013-2018)
Figure Global Emerging Battery Technologies Production Growth by Type (2013-2018)
Table Global Emerging Battery Technologies Consumption (Units) by Application (2013-2018)
Table Global Emerging Battery Technologies Consumption Market Share by Application (2013-2018)
Figure Global Emerging Battery Technologies Consumption Market Share by Applications (2013-2018)
Figure Global Emerging Battery Technologies Consumption Market Share by Application in 2017
Table Global Emerging Battery Technologies Consumption Growth Rate by Application (2013-2018)
Figure Global Emerging Battery Technologies Consumption Growth Rate by Application (2013-2018)
Table Wanxiang America Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors
Table Wanxiang America Emerging Battery Technologies Capacity, Production (Units), Revenue (Million USD), Price (K USD/Unit) and Gross Margin (2013-2018)
Figure Wanxiang America Emerging Battery Technologies Production Growth Rate (2013-2018)
Figure Wanxiang America Emerging Battery Technologies Production Market Share (2013-2018)
Figure Wanxiang America Emerging Battery Technologies Revenue Market Share (2013-2018)
Table Ac Delco Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors
Table Ac Delco Emerging Battery Technologies Capacity, Production (Units), Revenue (Million USD), Price (K USD/Unit) and Gross Margin (2013-2018)
Figure Ac Delco Emerging Battery Technologies Production Growth Rate (2013-2018)
Figure Ac Delco Emerging Battery Technologies Production Market Share (2013-2018)
Figure Ac Delco Emerging Battery Technologies Revenue Market Share (2013-2018)
Table Advanced Battery Concepts Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors
Table Advanced Battery Concepts Emerging Battery Technologies Capacity, Production (Units), Revenue (Million USD), Price (K USD/Unit) and Gross Margin (2013-2018)
Figure Advanced Battery Concepts Emerging Battery Technologies Production Growth Rate (2013-2018)
Figure Advanced Battery Concepts Emerging Battery Technologies Production Market Share (2013-2018)
Figure Advanced Battery Concepts Emerging Battery Technologies Revenue Market Share (2013-2018)
Table Advanced Battery Technologies Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors
Table Advanced Battery Technologies Emerging Battery Technologies Capacity, Production (Units), Revenue (Million USD), Price (K USD/Unit) and Gross Margin (2013-2018)
Figure Advanced Battery Technologies Emerging Battery Technologies Production Growth Rate (2013-2018)
Figure Advanced Battery Technologies Emerging Battery Technologies Production Market Share (2013-2018)
Figure Advanced Battery Technologies Emerging Battery Technologies Revenue Market Share (2013-2018)
Table Abat Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors
Table Abat Emerging Battery Technologies Capacity, Production (Units), Revenue (Million USD), Price (K USD/Unit) and Gross Margin (2013-2018)
Figure Abat Emerging Battery Technologies Production Growth Rate (2013-2018)
Figure Abat Emerging Battery Technologies Production Market Share (2013-2018)
Figure Abat Emerging Battery Technologies Revenue Market Share (2013-2018)
Table All Power Battery Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors
Table All Power Battery Emerging Battery Technologies Capacity, Production (Units), Revenue (Million USD), Price (K USD/Unit) and Gross Margin (2013-2018)
Figure All Power Battery Emerging Battery Technologies Production Growth Rate (2013-2018)
Figure All Power Battery Emerging Battery Technologies Production Market Share (2013-2018)
Figure All Power Battery Emerging Battery Technologies Revenue Market Share (2013-2018)
Table Ambri Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors
Table Ambri Emerging Battery Technologies Capacity, Production (Units), Revenue (Million USD), Price (K USD/Unit) and Gross Margin (2013-2018)
Figure Ambri Emerging Battery Technologies Production Growth Rate (2013-2018)
Figure Ambri Emerging Battery Technologies Production Market Share (2013-2018)
Figure Ambri Emerging Battery Technologies Revenue Market Share (2013-2018)
Table Amprius Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors
Table Amprius Emerging Battery Technologies Capacity, Production (Units), Revenue (Million USD), Price (K USD/Unit) and Gross Margin (2013-2018)
Figure Amprius Emerging Battery Technologies Production Growth Rate (2013-2018)
Figure Amprius Emerging Battery Technologies Production Market Share (2013-2018)
Figure Amprius Emerging Battery Technologies Revenue Market Share (2013-2018)
Table Anzode Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors
Table Anzode Emerging Battery Technologies Capacity, Production (Units), Revenue (Million USD), Price (K USD/Unit) and Gross Margin (2013-2018)
Figure Anzode Emerging Battery Technologies Production Growth Rate (2013-2018)
Figure Anzode Emerging Battery Technologies Production Market Share (2013-2018)
Figure Anzode Emerging Battery Technologies Revenue Market Share (2013-2018)
Table Apollo Energy Systems Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors
Table Apollo Energy Systems Emerging Battery Technologies Capacity, Production (Units), Revenue (Million USD), Price (K USD/Unit) and Gross Margin (2013-2018)
Figure Apollo Energy Systems Emerging Battery Technologies Production Growth Rate (2013-2018)
Figure Apollo Energy Systems Emerging Battery Technologies Production Market Share (2013-2018)
Figure Apollo Energy Systems Emerging Battery Technologies Revenue Market Share (2013-2018)
Table Production Base and Market Concentration Rate of Raw Material
Figure Price Trend of Key Raw Materials
Table Key Suppliers of Raw Materials
Figure Manufacturing Cost Structure of Emerging Battery Technologies
Figure Manufacturing Process Analysis of Emerging Battery Technologies
Figure Emerging Battery Technologies Industrial Chain Analysis
Table Raw Materials Sources of Emerging Battery Technologies Major Manufacturers in 2017
Table Major Buyers of Emerging Battery Technologies
Table Distributors/Traders List
Figure Global Emerging Battery Technologies Capacity, Production (Units) and Growth Rate Forecast (2018-2025)
Figure Global Emerging Battery Technologies Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate Forecast (2018-2025)
Figure Global Emerging Battery Technologies Price (Million USD) and Trend Forecast (2018-2025)
Table Global Emerging Battery Technologies Production (Units) Forecast by Region (2018-2025)
Figure Global Emerging Battery Technologies Production Market Share Forecast by Region (2018-2025)
Table Global Emerging Battery Technologies Consumption (Units) Forecast by Region (2018-2025)
Figure Global Emerging Battery Technologies Consumption Market Share Forecast by Region (2018-2025)
Figure United States Emerging Battery Technologies Production (Units) and Growth Rate Forecast (2018-2025)
Figure United States Emerging Battery Technologies Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate Forecast (2018-2025)
Table United States Emerging Battery Technologies Production, Consumption, Export and Import (Units) Forecast (2018-2025)
Figure EU Emerging Battery Technologies Production (Units) and Growth Rate Forecast (2018-2025)
Figure EU Emerging Battery Technologies Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate Forecast (2018-2025)
Table EU Emerging Battery Technologies Production, Consumption, Export and Import (Units) Forecast (2018-2025)
Figure China Emerging Battery Technologies Production (Units) and Growth Rate Forecast (2018-2025)
Figure China Emerging Battery Technologies Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate Forecast (2018-2025)
Table China Emerging Battery Technologies Production, Consumption, Export and Import (Units) Forecast (2018-2025)
Figure Japan Emerging Battery Technologies Production (Units) and Growth Rate Forecast (2018-2025)
Figure Japan Emerging Battery Technologies Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate Forecast (2018-2025)
Table Japan Emerging Battery Technologies Production, Consumption, Export and Import (Units) Forecast (2018-2025)
Figure South Korea Emerging Battery Technologies Production (Units) and Growth Rate Forecast (2018-2025)
Figure South Korea Emerging Battery Technologies Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate Forecast (2018-2025)
Table South Korea Emerging Battery Technologies Production, Consumption, Export and Import (Units) Forecast (2018-2025)
Figure Taiwan Emerging Battery Technologies Production (Units) and Growth Rate Forecast (2018-2025)
Figure Taiwan Emerging Battery Technologies Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate Forecast (2018-2025)
Table Taiwan Emerging Battery Technologies Production, Consumption, Export and Import (Units) Forecast (2018-2025)
Table Global Emerging Battery Technologies Production (Units) Forecast by Type (2018-2025)
Figure Global Emerging Battery Technologies Production (Units) Forecast by Type (2018-2025)
Table Global Emerging Battery Technologies Revenue (Million USD) Forecast by Type (2018-2025)
Figure Global Emerging Battery Technologies Revenue Market Share Forecast by Type (2018-2025)
Table Global Emerging Battery Technologies Price Forecast by Type (2018-2025)
Table Global Emerging Battery Technologies Consumption (Units) Forecast by Application (2018-2025)
Figure Global Emerging Battery Technologies Consumption (Units) Forecast by Application (2018-2025)
Table Research Programs/Design for This Report
Figure Bottom-up and Top-down Approaches for This Report
Figure Data Triangulation
Table Key Data Information from Secondary Sources
Table Key Data Information from Primary Source

Send an Enquiry

  • * :
  • * :
  • * :
  • * :
  • * :
  • :
  • * :
  • I agree to receive other communications from QYResearch Reports, and allow QYResearch Reports to store and process my personal data.*
  • * indicates required field.

LATEST NEWS


Back To Top